In this episode, we begin a multi-part series regarding electrolytes. Listen in as we discuss hypo and hyper states, and the obscure changes that will drastically change your plan of attack in the patient with dyschloremia. We also briefly touch on acid-base balance and the limitations of anion gap.
Atalan, H. K., & Gucyetmez, B. (2017, 47). The effects of the chloride:sodium ratio on acid-base status and mortality in septic patients. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, pp. 435-442.
Kraut, J. A., & Madias, N. E. (2007). Serum anion gap: Its uses and limitations in clinical medicine. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 2, 162-174.
Nagami, G. T. (2016, Volume 36 Issue 4). Hyperchloremia- Why and How. Nephrologia (English edition), pp. 347-353.
Soifer, J. T., & Kim, H. T. (2014). Approach to metabolic alkalosis. Emergency medicine clinics of North America, 32(2), 453-463.
Thongprayoon, C., Cheungpasitporn, W., Cheng, Z., & Qian, Q. (2017, March 22). Chloride alterations in hospitalized patients: Prevalence and outcome significance. Public Library of Science, pp. 1-17.
Walker, H., Hall, W., & Hurst, J. (1990). Serum Chloride. In Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations (p. Chapter 197). Boston: Butterworths.